TU Delft
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2014/2015 Civil Engineering and Geosciences Master Civiele Techniek
Atmospheric observation
Responsible Instructor
Name E-mail
Dr. Y. Dufournet    Y.Dufournet@tudelft.nl
Name E-mail
C.M.H. Unal    C.M.H.Unal@tudelft.nl
Contact Hours / Week x/x/x/x
Education Period
Start Education
Exam Period
Course Language
Course Contents

• Relation between atmospheric and observation scales of the atmosphere and introduction to multi-scale observations
• sensors introductions (platform’s types, remote-sensing / in-situ, passive / active sensor systems, wavelength range)
• reminder of definition absorption, extinction and scattering
• observation configurations

2.Observation of the dry atmospheric composition (gases and aerosols):

a)Satellite observation
• scientific questions and challenges concerning the ozone layer, air quality and the climate system, short description of chemical composition of the atmosphere, reminder T and p curve, definition Dobson unit
• Core: physical principles of the solar backscatter observation techniques ; satellite missions for atmospheric composition ; instrument design ; satellite applications
• main instruments: GOME, SCIAMACHY, GOME-2, OMI and TROPOMI

b)Ground-based observations: direct sun observations of Ozone and aerosols ; air mass factor calculation ; scattered light calculation of trace gases

c)Lidar observation : measurements and retrievals

3. Observation of the wet atmospheric composition (cloud and precipitation):

a) Radar meteorology:
scanning and profiling radars, scattering matrix of hydrometeors, propagation aspects, Doppler radar spectral estimation, specific signal processing, spectral polarimetry, polarimetric basis to characterize precipitation, radar rainfall estimation, raindrop size distribution retrieval
b) Lidar observations:
• Introduction to lidar techniques (mainly backscatter and Raman types)
• cloud observations

4.Atmospheric dynamic observation:

wind, convection and turbulence with radar, wind lidar, sodar and sonic anenometer

5.Retrieval and sensor synergy
• multi-scale observations
• radar / lidar synergy
Study Goals
This course aims at providing up-to-date knowledge on atmospheric observations required for several applications in the fields of weather, climate and air quality. The course is structured into three parts, each approaching the observation of the atmosphere from a different viewpoint and introducing specific measurement techniques: the dry atmosphere (gases and aerosols), the wet atmosphere (water vapor, cloud and precipitation) and the thermodynamic processes of the atmosphere.

After successful completion of this course, the student is able to:

• Identify the relation between observation techniques and practical applications in the field of weather, • climate and air quality.
• Identify the different type of sensors and platforms used in atmospheric observation.
• Apply dedicated retrieval algorithms using inverse modelling in order to retrieve some aerosol and cloud information.
• Design some observation setups based on a set of requirements coming from the atmospheric process that need to be observed (case studies).
Education Method
Every week: lecturing (2x2 hours)
Every two weeks: one guided assignment (4 hours)
written exam --> 70%
4 graded assignments --> 30%
Yann dufournet - y.dufournet-at-tudelft.nl