TU Delft
Education Type
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2016/2017 Applied Sciences Master Applied Physics
AP3181 D
Applied Multiphase Flow
Responsible Instructor
Name E-mail
Dr. L. Portela    L.Portela@tudelft.nl
Name E-mail
Prof.dr. R.F. Mudde    R.F.Mudde@tudelft.nl
Contact Hours / Week x/x/x/x
Education Period
Start Education
Exam Period
Course Language
Expected prior knowledge
The course assumes some elementary knowledge of Fluid Mechanics and/or Transport Phenomena. The level of prior knowledge required is typically acquired in a B.Sc. course in Engineering or Applied Physics. Prior knowledge of multiphase flow is not required.
Course Contents
1. Introduction. Overview of multiphase flow. Examples of industrial and environmental flows. Examples of flows with heat transfer and phase change. Classification of multiphase flows: separated vs. dispersed. Brief introduction to flow patterns.
2. Balance equations. Physical mechanisms involved and material behavior. Constitutive equations and mechanistic models of behavior. Interfacial interactions and forces. Analogies and differences with respect to single-phase flow. Flow parameters, non-dimensional numbers and scaling.
3. Introduction to turbulence, turbulence modeling and turbulence effects. Analogies and differences with respect to single-phase flow.
4. Separated flows and interfacial phenomena. Stability associated with interfacial flows. Interfacial waves.
5. Dispersed flows. Interaction between the dispersed and continuous phases. Momentum, heat and mass transfer. Differences and similarities between solid particles, droplets and bubbles.
6. Dynamics of single particles: solid particles, droplets and bubbles. Bubble and droplet dynamics. Bubble growth and collapse. Introduction to cavitation. Droplet dynamics and breakup.
7. Inter-particle interactions and collisions. Droplet and bubble coalescence and breakup. Collision kernel. Population balance models and simulations.
8. Quasi-1D flows, both internal and external (channel, pipe, jet, etc.). Balance equations and simplifying assumptions. Simple mechanistic models. Similarities and differences between: gas-liquid, liquid-gas, liquid-liquid, solid-liquid, and solid-gas. Flow classification and flow patterns, both separated and dispersed. Physical explanation and underlying mechanisms in the construction of a flow map. Steady and transient phenomena.
9. Stirred flows, both internal and external (bubble columns, fluidized beds, stirred tanks, ocean and atmospheric turbulence, etc.). Similarities and differences with respect to quasi-1D flows. Motion-driven, pressure-driven and gravity-driven flows. Dilute and dense flows. Flows dominated by inter-particle interactions (dense fluidized beds, bubble columns, etc.).
10. Multiphase flows with complex fluids (granular flow, slurries, agglomerates, emulsions, foams, etc.). Internal mesoscale structures. Thermodynamic and physicochemical interactions. Complex particles (with a complex structure and/or a complex particle-dynamics).
11. Heat transfer and phase change. Boiling and condensation. Radiation.
12. Industrial flow examples. Complex flow in pipelines in the oil-gas industry. Pneumatic conveying and solid-gas flows. Process equipment. Microfluidics applications.
13. Environmental flow examples. Sediment transport in rivers and the ocean. Aerosols and particulates dispersion in the atmosphere. Droplets in clouds.
Study Goals
To give a general unified perspective on multiphase flow, with an emphasis on:
(i) the understanding of the several essential physical mechanisms involved; and
(ii) the formulation of complex engineering problems in terms of simple physically-based models.

The students will develop the ability to:
(i) formulate the problems in a structured way, starting from first principles;
(ii) obtain (approximate) solutions using standard analytical and numerical techniques;
(iii) interpret and critically analyse the solutions obtained;
(iv) report the formulation of the problems and its solution in a clear well-structured form; and
(v) sustain a critical discussion on the formulation of the problems and its solution.

Also, during the course the students
(i) will acquire a broad knowledge of multiphase flow; and
(ii) will develop the ability to read and understand scientific literature on multiphase flow.
Education Method
The education method is based on the combination of regular lectures, homework and interaction with the instructor outside the lectures (regular and impromptu office hours). The “Learning by Doing” is a key component of the education method: the homework involves both “standard problems” and “open-ended problems”, with the initiative and creativity of the students being strongly encouraged. The interaction with the instructor outside the lectures plays a key role, and it involves an iterative process, based on the “Learning by Struggling” philosophy.
Literature and Study Materials
The study material consists mostly of lecture notes. Also, during the course, sections of books, on specific topics, and articles, from the scientific literature, are suggested for reading.

Possible auxiliary general reference-books on Multiphase Flow are:
1. Brennen, C.E. (2005). Fundamentals of Multiphase Flow. Cambridge University Press.
2. Ghiaasiaan, S. M. (2007). Two-Phase Flow, Boiling and Condensation: in Conventional and Miniature Systems. Cambridge University Press.
3. Kleinstreuer, C. (2003). Two-Phase Flow: Theory and Applications. Taylor & Francis.
4. Crowe, C.T., Schwarzkopf, J.D., Sommerfeld, M. and Tsuji, Y. (2012). Multiphase Flows with Droplets and Particles. Second Edition. CRC Press.
5. Fan, L-S and Zhu, C. (1998). Principles of Gas-Solid Flows. Cambridge University Press.
6. Peker, S.M. and Helvaci, S.S. (2008). Solid-Liquid Two Phase Flow. Elsevier.

Possible auxiliary general reference-books on Fluid Mechanics and Transport Phenomena are:
1. Kundu, P.K. and Cohen, I.M. (2008). Fluid Mechanics. Fourth Edition. Academic Press.
2. Ghiaasiaan, S.M. (2011). Convective Heat and Mass Transfer. Cambridge University Press.
The assessment is based on the homework proposed during the course (30%) and on the final exam (70%). The final exam consists of a written part followed by an oral discussion with the instructor. The written part is “open book”: the students can consult any reference they wish (including the internet) and use any tool they wish (including a laptop). The oral discussion will be arranged individually, shortly after the written exam, in consultation between the student and the instructor.
Permitted Materials during Tests
Any material (including laptop).